The special economic effects of pandemics (2023)

When millions of people in the United States and around the world went into lockdown in March 2020, it spreadBusinessIt was inevitable. As necessary as these measures were to control the coronavirus outbreak from a medical standpoint, there was a catch: much of the economy ground to a halt. And because this pandemic is global, the impact has been felt globally.

How much has COVID-19 impacted the economy? HeFederal Reserve Bank (Fed) de St. Louispoints out that the economic recession in the first months of the pandemic competed with the initial drops of the pandemicGreat Depression.

Fortunately, the US economy started to recover in late 2020 after the introduction ofunprecedented stimulus measures. Then the economy got another much-needed boost from the rapid rollout of vaccines and the US government's efforts to encourage everyone to get these shots and get vaccinated.

Still, the pandemic and its economic impact are far from over, especially as new highly contagious strains of the virus continue to emerge.

The central theses

  • Before COVID-19, the biggest pandemic in modern history was the 1918-1919 Spanish flu, during which many utility companies suffered double-digit losses.
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that the world economy contracted more than 3% in 2020, grew 5.9% in 2021 and will grow 4.9% in 2022.
  • While certain sectors, such as travel and hospitality, felt the impact of the pandemic more directly, the impact has spread to unrelated sectors as well.
  • Government interventions during the pandemic, such as various stimulus packages, have helped the US economy to recover.
  • Vaccines have helped slow the spread of the virus, although new highly contagious coronavirus variants continue to emerge, threatening progress.
  • The arrival of a pandemic is a good time to analyze your financial situation and plan for the worst. It's never late.

The network economy

Certain sectors, such as travel and hospitality, have felt the impact of the pandemic more directly. Stores and restaurants either closed their doors completely or opened with low capacity and low demand for food. Unnecessary travel disappeared, causing heavy casualties.revenuenot just for airlines and cruise line operators, but also for smaller companies that rely on tourism money.

Those employed in seemingly unrelated industries have also felt the side effects of social distancing. For example, manufacturers, particularly nonmedical ones, received fewer orders as purchases slowed and demand for non-essentials like new clothes declined. Banks absorbed the loss ofmortgagegovernment paymentsindulgenceStandards.And oil companies saw prices drop as demand declined due to a sharp drop in commutes.

Fear of the unknown only compounded this economic impact. Even individuals and families with supposedly stable jobs cut back on their purchases if the financial shakeout could not be contained.

(Video) What are the economic and social costs of the pandemic? | COVID-19 Special

Measuring the impact of a pandemic

Each pandemic is unique, so measuring the impact of this type of crisis is particularly difficult. Furthermore, there simply aren't many examples that compare to worst-case estimates of the impact of COVID-19. For example, the 2009 H1N1 flu was common but not as deadly. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there have been 61 million cases of H1N1 in the United States, resulting in fewer than 13,000 deaths.

The closest modern comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic occurred over a century ago, when the so-called Spanish flu (another H1N1 virus, albeit a different strain than the 2009 version) ravaged the world in 1918-1919. According to CDC estimates, around 500 million people contracted the disease, which eventually killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide.

Economic data for the early 20th century is scarce. However, an analysis by the St. Louis estimated that many companies, particularly those focused on services and entertainment, "suffered double-digit sales losses".At the time, the economic disruption was short-lived as the underlying health emergency subsided in 1919.

How does the current pandemic compare? While the death rate from COVID-19 was significantly lower than that of the Spanish flu, the economic cost is already severe.Because the underlying virus is so contagious, a group of researchers at the University of Hong Kong and Harvard University estimated that between a quarter and half of the world's population would likely contract the virus "without drastic control measures or a vaccine". governments around the world. took drastic measures to contain its spread.But these measures, which included keeping most customers and restaurants at home, came at a high economic cost.

50.3 million

The number of reported cases of COVID-19 in the United States as of March 19, 2022, resulting in more than 969,000 deaths to date.The World Health Organization (WHO), in turn, recorded about 271 million confirmed cases and 6.06 million deaths worldwide.

The economic impact of COVID-19

Many potential workers and buyers withdrew in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, which had a devastating impact on the global economy and the United States. For example, US retail sales fell in April 2020 before rebounding in July 2020.Furthermore, Fed data showed the worst contraction in manufacturing output since the 1940s, although it has recovered since then.

Of course, this sudden drop in demand had a devastating impact on employment. The NationalunemploymentThe rate rose to 14.8% in April 2020 before dropping to 6.2% in February 2021. In November 2021, it dropped to 4.2%.Additional estimates revealed that more than 25.7 million workers were affected by the pandemic. This number included, among others, those whose working hours or wages were reduced and those who were completely unemployed.

These economic shock waves were felt from Beijing to Madrid, causing a strain on the global economy not seen in decades. In October 2021, theFMI(IMF) revealed that the world economy contracted 3.1% in 2020, the worst contraction in recent times. However, the economy recovered in 2021 and will grow by 4.9% in 2022 according to IMF forecasts.

(Video) Understanding the Economic Shock of the Covid-19 Crisis

That's not to say a quick return to pre-pandemic days is imminent. especially many otherseconomistssince then they downloaded theirsgrowthPrices for 2022 after a battle ofInflationand an increase in cases related to new variants of the virus.

A recent spike in COVID-19 infections due to the highly contagious Omicron variant could undermine the global economic recovery, exacerbating itSupply chaindisturbed and depressingdemandwarned US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen.

The role of state intervention.

Ideally, legislators andcentral banksUse the power of the wallet to mitigate an economic downturn. The United States has passed several rounds of stimulus bills. In March 2020, US lawmakers passed the first of these: a $2 trillion stimulus bill thatCARES-Gesetz (Help, Relief and Economic Security with the Coronavirus).to mitigate the economic impact of the global coronavirus pandemic. On March 27, 2020, then-President Donald Trump signed into law a series of measures designed to help the American public.

Efforts to Open the United StatestreasuryYsend money directlyto homes that helped the newly unemployed and people with reduced work hours. ANDzinc indexThe reductions contributed to the increaseliquidityat a time when money was tight. In March 2020, the Fed cut interest rates to almost zero.

These aren't the only gadgets governments have in their tools. You can activate short-term financing mechanisms that help companiesstay afloat and keep employeesduring the crisis. and you canstrengthen unemployment insuranceand provide other safety nets that restrict the most vulnerable residentsbefore losing your homelandor go hungry. US stimulus packages included measures to deal with these problems.

prepare yourself financially

While pandemics can cause significant financial damage, at least in the short term, there are steps you can take to better protect your finances. It's never too late and you never know when an emergency might arise. Here are some of the measures you can consider to protect your finances from disaster:

Build your emergency fund

Conventional wisdom dictates that you must havecosts of three to six monthsavailable in your bank account at any time. A pandemic is one of the scenarios they were designed for. So if you're a little off target, now is the time to build up your reserve if you can; you never know when you might need it.

Dust off your resume

As businesses continue to fully reopen, more jobs will become available. Start networking with people who can help you find a job, and make sure your resume is up to date. If you work in a hard-hit industry, now might be the right time to start looking for other job opportunities.

(Video) Pandemic having lasting impact on the US economy

seek financial relief

Those whose income has had to drop or disappear as a result of the pandemic may find it difficult to pay their mortgage, rent or other debts.student loans. As part of the stimulus packages, the US government has provided relief to many who have been unable to pay these bills due to the economic impact of the pandemic.

When you are facing financial problems, it is always better to get in touch with your creditors as soon as possible rather than failing to pay without contacting them. The worst thing you can do when you miss a payment is to keep yours.creditorIn the dark.

If you did not receive a stimulus payment or did not receive the full amount you were entitled to, you can claim it as acredit refundon your taxes for 2021 (filed in 2022).

What was the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic?

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the world economy contracted by 3.1% in 2020.Mandatory lockdowns around the world have severely affected job security,spentand the production of goods and services, which, among other things, led to the collapse of stock markets.

The United States had two consecutive quarters of declinesGross Domestic Product (GDP)recorded, down 9.1% in the secondsala(Q2) 2020 marks the sharpest quarterly contraction in economic output since modern records began in 1947.

While the economic fallout from the pandemic has been widespread, it has been particularly damaging for black, Latino, Native American and immigrant families, according to the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, a nonprofit research institute.

(Video) Economic impact of epidemics and pandemics [Policy Podcast]

The good news is that the US economy has started to recover in late 2020. Furthermore, there is hope that vaccinating the population and boosting immunity will pave the way for a brighter future, even as the virus continues to wreak havoc.

What is the COVID-19 Pandemic Financial Assistance Payout?

The United States Congress has passed several bills to deal with the financial fallout from the COVID-19 crisis. The first was the CARES (Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security) Act passed in March 2020.salary protection program(PPP) for each affected entity, ending May 31, 2021.

An additional $600 direct stimulus payment was included in theConsolidated Endowment Law(CAA) of 2021, which was signed into law in December 2020, while a third $1,400 stimulus check for eligible adults and each of their dependents was approved in March 2021.American bailout act of 2021.Some lawmakers are now pushing for a fourth round of relief.

How will the US economy develop in 2022?

While the United States is unlikely to see a repeat of what happened in 2020, COVID-19 is unpredictable and remains a real threat to the economy. Avoiding future bans will be equally crucial.maintain inflationunder control and eliminating bottlenecks in the supply chain.

the end result

The initial economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was catastrophic and widespread, with disruption to the global economy causing millions of people to lose their livelihoods. Things certainly look a lot better now, although the pandemic hasn't gone away and significant uncertainties remain.

Every time life seems to return to normal, a new variant appears that causes panic. These waves suggest the virus will not go away and it could be years before we see an end to regular lockdowns and economic uncertainty.

In this difficult context, it is important, among other things, to analyze your financial situation and predict the worst.

(Video) How the pandemic has impacted the economy and society | COVID-19 Special


How did the pandemic effect the economy? ›

The pandemic was accompanied by historic drops in output in almost all major economies. U.S. GDP fell by 8.9 percent in the second quarter of 2020 (figure 3-3), the largest single-quarter contraction in more than 70 years (BEA 2021c). Most other major economies fared even worse.

What are the economic costs of pandemics? ›

Introduction: In October 2020, David Cutler and Lawrence H. Summers published a brief article in JAMA Viewpoint estimating that COVID-19 would cost the United States $16 trillion dollars, when combining economic damages and monetized health and life loss.

What are the effects of COVID-19 pandemic to our society and economy? ›

From school closures to devastated industries and millions of jobs lost – the social and economic costs of the pandemic are many and varied. Covid-19 is threatening to widen inequalities everywhere, undermine progress on global poverty and clean energy, and more.

How did the pandemic affect the world? ›

The COVID-19 pandemic has had global repercussions as many countries embarked on measures such as mobility restrictions to avoid the further spread of the virus. This has led to reduced economic activities worldwide across all industries.

How the COVID pandemic dismantled our economy? ›

Due to the lockdown and the risk of spreading the disease, the manufacturing of essential goods has slowed down. The supply chain of products has been disrupted, and national and international businesses face losses (22). The cash flow in the market is poor, slowing down the revenue growth in the economy.

How did lockdown affect economy? ›

The pandemic caused a severe recession, with an unprecedented drop in GDP during the first national lockdown in 2020. As businesses and consumers adapted, subsequent lockdowns in autumn 2020 and winter 2020/21 did not lead to as severe a decline in economic activity.

What are the after effects of the pandemic? ›

Now, new research suggests that over 50% of doctors, nurses and emergency responders could be at risk for one or more mental health problems, including acute traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and insomnia.

How the pandemic affected businesses? ›

In 2020, 6.0 percent of companies canceled, 9.7 percent postponed, 8.2 percent decreased, and 1.5 increased some of their budgeted capital expenditures during the coronavirus pandemic. A total of 1.7 percent of companies introduced new unbudgeted capital expenditures.

What are economic impact examples? ›

For example, if you were building a new distribution center in a city, you would need to hire labor, buy materials from suppliers, and contract services for technology infrastructure. The income that generates for the businesses and contractors you work with would be counted as a direct economic impact.

What impact does COVID have on business? ›

Sales have seen a sharp decline due to travel restrictions, social distancing, restrictions on sale of some commodities and customers resorting to budget cuts and putting projects on hold. Companies are struggling to recover fixed costs in the absence of revenue generation due to sharp drop in sales.

What are the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on social? ›

Social constraints in the COVID-19 pandemic force individuals to adapt to isolation and increase the prevalence of violence in the family, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder.

What are the impacts of COVID-19 on our lives? ›

The economic and social disruption caused by the pandemic is devastating: tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty, while the number of undernourished people, currently estimated at nearly 690 million, could increase by up to 132 million by the end of the year.


1. Preparing for economic effects of epidemics
(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)
2. Pandemic economics: The economy of fear
(Knowable Magazine)
3. Modeling the distributional epidemic-economic effects of the Covid-19 pandemic
(Santa Fe Institute)
4. "The Economic Consequences of the Corona Pandemic" with Prof. Antonio Fatas
5. The Unequal Economic Impact of the Pandemic | Combating the Crisis Together
6. The economic impact of a pandemic
(KGW News)


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